1: @node GNU Free Documentation License
2: @unnumbered GNU Free Documentation License
4: @c This file is intended to be included in another file.
6: @center Version 1.1, March 2000
9: Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
10: 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
11: Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
12: of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
13: @end display
15: @unnumberedsec Preamble
17: The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
18: written document ``free'' in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
19: the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
20: modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily,
21: this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
22: credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
23: modifications made by others.
25: This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative
26: works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
27: complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
28: license designed for free software.
30: We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
31: software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
32: program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
33: software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
34: it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
35: whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
36: principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
38: @unnumberedsec APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
40: This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
41: notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
42: under the terms of this License. The ``Document'', below, refers to any
43: such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
44: addressed as ``you''.
46: A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
47: Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
48: modifications and/or translated into another language.
50: A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
51: the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
52: publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
53: (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
54: within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a
55: textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
56: mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
57: connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
58: commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
61: The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
62: are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
63: that says that the Document is released under this License.
65: The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
66: as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
67: the Document is released under this License.
69: A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
70: represented in a format whose specification is available to the
71: general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
72: straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
73: pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
74: drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
75: for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
76: to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
77: format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage
78: subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is
79: not ``Transparent" is called "Opaque''.
81: Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
82: ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
83: or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
84: HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include
85: PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only
86: by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
87: processing tools are not generally available, and the
88: machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
89: purposes only.
91: The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
92: plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
93: this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
94: formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title Page'' means
95: the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
96: preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
98: @unnumberedsec VERBATIM COPYING
100: You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
101: commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
102: copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
103: to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
104: conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
105: technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
106: copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
107: compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
108: number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
110: You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
111: you may publicly display copies.
113: @unnumberedsec COPYING IN QUANTITY
115: If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
116: and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose
117: the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
118: Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
119: the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
120: you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
121: the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
122: visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
123: Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
124: the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
125: as verbatim copying in other respects.
127: If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
128: legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
129: reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
132: If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
133: more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
134: copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
135: a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
136: Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
137: general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
138: charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter
139: option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
140: distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
141: Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location
142: until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque
143: copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to
144: the public.
146: It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
147: Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
148: them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
150: @unnumberedsec MODIFICATIONS
152: You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
153: the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
154: the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
155: Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
156: and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
157: of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
159: @enumerate A
161: Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
162: from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
163: (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
164: of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
165: if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
168: List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
169: responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
170: Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
171: Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
174: State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
175: Modified Version, as the publisher.
178: Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
181: Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
182: adjacent to the other copyright notices.
185: Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
186: giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
187: terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
190: Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
191: and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
194: Include an unaltered copy of this License.
197: Preserve the section entitled ``History'', and its title, and add to
198: it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
199: publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
200: there is no section entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
201: stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
202: given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
203: Version as stated in the previous sentence.
206: Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
207: public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
208: the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
209: it was based on. These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
210: You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
211: least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
212: publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
215: In any section entitled ``Acknowledgements" or "Dedications'',
216: preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
217: substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
218: and/or dedications given therein.
221: Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
222: unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
223: or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
226: Delete any section entitled ``Endorsements''. Such a section
227: may not be included in the Modified Version.
230: Do not retitle any existing section as ``Endorsements''
231: or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
232: @end enumerate
234: If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
235: appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
236: copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
237: of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
238: list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
239: These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
241: You may add a section entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it contains
242: nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
243: parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
244: been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
247: You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
248: passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
249: of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
250: Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
251: through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
252: includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
253: by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
254: you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
255: permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
257: The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
258: give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
259: imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
261: @unnumberedsec COMBINING DOCUMENTS
263: You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
264: License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
265: versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
266: Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
267: list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
268: license notice.
270: The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
271: multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
272: copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
273: different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
274: adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
275: author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
276: Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
277: Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
279: In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled ``History''
280: in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
281: ``History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements'',
282: and any sections entitled ``Dedications''. You must delete all sections
283: entitled ``Endorsements.''
285: @unnumberedsec COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
287: You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
288: released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
289: License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
290: the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
291: verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
293: You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
294: it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
295: License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
296: other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
298: @unnumberedsec AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
300: A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
301: and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
302: distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version
303: of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
304: compilation. Such a compilation is called an ``aggregate'', and this
305: License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
306: with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they
307: are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
309: If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
310: copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter
311: of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
312: covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate.
313: Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
315: @unnumberedsec TRANSLATION
317: Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
318: distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
319: Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
320: permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
321: translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
322: original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
323: translation of this License provided that you also include the
324: original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
325: between the translation and the original English version of this
326: License, the original English version will prevail.
328: @unnumberedsec TERMINATION
330: You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
331: as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
332: copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
333: automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
334: parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
335: License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
336: parties remain in full compliance.
338: @unnumberedsec FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
340: The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
341: of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
342: versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
343: differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
346: Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
347: If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
348: License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
349: following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
350: of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
351: Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
352: number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
353: as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
357: @unnumberedsec ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
359: To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
360: the License in the document and put the following copyright and
361: license notices just after the title page:
364: Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
365: Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
366: under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
367: or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
368: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
369: Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
370: A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
371: Free Documentation License".
372: @end display
374: If you have no Invariant Sections, write ``with no Invariant Sections''
375: instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no
376: Front-Cover Texts, write ``no Front-Cover Texts'' instead of
377: ``Front-Cover Texts being LIST''; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.
379: If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
380: recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
381: free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
382: to permit their use in free software.